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Old 5th August 2007, 08:21 AM   #98
Join Date: Oct 2006
Posts: 730
Originally Posted by pandamonk View Post
"Never before or after 911, has any steel building collapsed from fire."
I watched part of the 9/11 section of the movie, once the claim that Flight 77 vaporized came up, I quit watching the movie.

Anyways, here are a few examples of steel framed structures fully collapsing or partially collapsing due to fire, along with a bit of information:

"As Frank Brannigan states in his Building Construction for the Fire Service text there are still some misconceptions that steel construction and steel buildings are safe when attacked by fire. This is as far from the truth as you can imagine."

Three multi-storey buildings collapsed due to fire after burning less than two hours

The Windsor Tower in Madrid, Spain suffered a major fire in 2005, this resulted in the failure of the steel frame on the upper floors of the building, only the concrete core remained standing.

The steel roof of a large exhibition hall quickly failed in a fire.

A toilet paper factory collapsed during a fire, Intense heat buckled the steel girders holding the roof.”

The steel frame of the Site and Sound Theater in Pennsylvania weakened and partially collapsed due to fire. takes some good excerpts from the report above and adds comments in []

On the morning of January 28, 1997, in the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania township of Strasburg, a fire caused the collapse of the state-of-the-art, seven year old Sight and Sound Theater and resulted in structural damage to most of the connecting buildings.
The theater was a total loss, valued at over $15 million.

pg 6/74

The theater was built of steel rigid frame construction to allow for the large open space of the auditorium, unobstructed by columns... The interior finish in the auditorium was drywall.

The stage storage area, prop assembly building, and prop maintenance building were protected with a sprayed-on fire resistant coating on all structural steel. The plans called for the coating to meet a two-hour fire resistance assembly rating. The sprayed-on coating, which was susceptible to damage from the movement of theater equipment, was protected by attaching plywood coverings on the columns to a height of eight feet.

The walls of the storage area beneath the stage were layered drywall to provide a two-hour fire protection rating for the mezzanine offices [the WTC used drywall as fire protection in the central core]
, and sprayed-on fire-resistant coatings on the structural
steel columns and ceiling bar joists supporting the stage floor.

pg 15/74

The two theater employees told the State Police Fire Investigator that when they first discovered the fire they noticed that the sprayed-on fire proofing had been knocked off the underside of the stage floor bar joists and support steel. The fire proofing was hanging on the wire mesh used to hold the coating to the overhead. The investigation revealed that the construction company's removal of the stage floor covering down to the corrugated decking involved striking the floor hard enough to knock off the sprayed-on protection, exposing the structural steel and bar-joists in the storage area. [The theater's spray-on fireproofing was newer and more modern than at the WTC, The theater was only seven years old. If striking the floor during renovations was enough to dislodge it imagine the impact of a 767]

pg 16/74

Temperatures of 1000° F can cause buckling and temperatures of 1500° F can cause steel to lose strength and collapse. When the heat and hot gases reached the stage ceiling they extended horizontally into the auditorium, causing the roof to fail all the way to the lobby fire wall. The fire also extended horizontally from the stage to the elevated hallway, causing the structural steel to fail and buckle in the prop assembly and prop maintenance buildings

pg 17/74

Once the heat of the fire caused the structural steel to fail in the storage area (aided by the damage to the sprayed-on fire protection during renovation), interior firefighting became too hazardous to continue. The truck crews ventilating the roof noted metal discoloration and buckling steel.

pg. 21/74

The two hour fire resistance-rated assembly in the storage area beneath the stage was damaged during the stage floor renovation, leaving the structural members unprotected from the ensuing fire.

pg. 26/74

Buildings constructed of steel should, in effect, be considered unprotected and capable of collapse from fire in as few as ten minutes. Fire resistant coatings sprayed onto structural steel are susceptible to damage from construction work.

The impact of fire and heat on structural steel members warrant extreme caution by firefighters.

pg. 36/74

Unless the steel members are cooled with high-volume hose streams, the fire's heat can rapidly cause steel to lose its strength and contribute to building collapse.
pg. 37/74

In 1991, a fire erupted in One Meridian Plaza, though the building suffered no impact damage like any of the collapsed structures on 9/11, firefighters feared that the building may collapse and halted firefighting operations in the building.

“All interior firefighting efforts were halted after almost 11 hours of uninterrupted fire in the building. Consultation with a structural engineer and structural damage observed by units operating in the building led to the belief that there was a possibility of a pancake structural collapse of the fire damaged floors.”

The failure of a single column in the Parker Building fire caused a global collapse of section of the building from floor 20 to the basement. Another column also failed later in the fire causing another local collapse. Also, both the iron and steel structures in the building were warped and weakened due to the fire that commonly exceeded temperatures of 1800 degrees F, and peaked around 2000 degrees.

Chief Edward Croker of the New York Fire Department had long sought improvements in the building codes and factory laws, because of such early fires as the Parker Building. Three firemen were killed in a massive collapse within this 20-story fireproof building.”

Part of the roof of a steel framed building in Virginia collapsed after burning very shortly, once the flames were extinguished, the school was said to be a total loss.
At 10:47 p.m., ten minutes after being dispatched, fire ground units were notified that the roof of Dogwood Elementary School had collapsed on Side Three of the building.”

On June 20th, 2007, a fire broke out in a furniture store and the roof quickly collapsed, killing nine firefighters.
“Capt. Ralph Linderman of the St. Andrews Fire Department said the blaze was the hottest he could recall in three decades of firefighting. "That fire bent steel like a wet noodle," he said...

Charleston Fire Capt. Jake Jenkins said the firefighters were spread out in teams when the roof - a steel truss system - collapsed. Other crews fought to get inside the building and rescue the fallen, but the conditions were too bad, he said.”

A large portion of a steel deck roof collapsed in the fire of 205 West Jefferson Street.

A highway overpass with steel supports failed and collapsed in an intense fire.
“Engineers said the green steel frame of the I-580 overpass and the bolts holding the frame together began to melt and bend in the intense heat and that movement pulled the roadbed off its supports.”

In 2005, a ship collided with The Mumbai High North platform causing a fire to breakout resulting in the platform completely collapsing.

Location: Mumbai offshore, India
Fire Event: 27 July 2005
A vessel collided with the offshore Mumbai High North platform, 160 km west of the Mumbai coast, causing a major fire, completely destroying the platform and resulting in 11 deaths and 11 others missing.
Fire duration = 2 hours

Fire Damage: Complete collapse of the platform
Construction Type: Steel

Fire Resistance: No information available
Function: Oil and natural gas processing platform
Dimensions: 7 storeys”

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