Originally Posted by Ziggurat in #26
The objection that propagation alignment of photons violates momentum and /or energy conservation is indeed serious. The bigger the changing angles, the more convincing the objection.
Let us assume that two photons with each the same energy E
are close to one another, and that the angle between their propagation directions is 120°. If they want to move in the same direction, then each photon has to change its direction by 60° into the new intermediate propagation direction.
Because of symmetry, the two photons cannot exchange energy, and propagation speed is always c. Before propagation alignment, combined momentum in the new direction:
2 * E/c^2 * 0.5 c = E/c
The factor 0.5 is the result of cos 60°. After alignment, momentum in this new direction:
2 * E/c^2 * c = 2 E/c
Therefore, combined momentum in the new direction would double during propagation alignment.
This problem can be solved by a simple ad-hoc-hypothesis. During alignment, radiation (in the form of one or more photons) with energy 0.5 E
is emitted in the direction opposite to the new propagation direction, and each of the original two photons loses 25% of its energy E
. Then total momentum in the new direction will be again:
2 * 0.75 E/c – 0.5 E/c = E/c
As seen from two such photons:
The attempt not to drift apart leads by momentum conservation to an attempt to reduce propagation speed. There are only two solutions: either to give up the attempt to align propagation direction, or to gain forward momentum by emitting radiation backwards.
In any case, the momentum-compensation hypothesis for aligning photons implies:
- Overall redshift for the interacting photons
- Release of low-frequency radiation (lost in background)
Simple statistical behavior can be the result of complex individual behavior