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Old 20th April 2016, 01:25 AM   #64
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Originally Posted by wogoga View Post
The conclusion of incredibly high energies involved in gamma ray bursts depends on the following premises:
  1. The sources are far away.
  2. The released energy becomes continuously distributed on an increasing surface (proportional to the distance square from the source).
Based on the second premise one concludes that one "gamma ray burst" could be detected in a huge region of the universe. Nevertheless, one should not forget that this certainly reasonable assumption is not necessarily valid without exception in all possible situations.

Properties of a detected electromagnetic signal can originate from
  1. the source
  2. the transmission of the signal (transmission effect)
  3. the detecting system (instrumentation effect)
Typical instrumentation effects can result e.g. from "improving" faint signals by means of additional electronics and software. A good example of a transmission effect is a mirage (Fata Morgana, an image produced by very hot air).

The existence of coherent sun light consisting of more than one photon (in the same way as induced emission in general) is strong evidence that also photons are "social" particles, interacting with each other.

Because of cohesion forces between molecules, water molecules are not homogeneously distributed in the atmosphere, but can often be found in groups (droplets). Reasoning from analogy could suggest the hypothesis of small cohesive forces between photons.

Such cohesive forces could explain why gamma rays are not always diluted more and more with increasing distance from the source, but break apart into fragments (which are currently interpreted as being a direct result of bursts somewhere in the universe).

Normally the distance between two objects, emitted at the same time with the same speed in slightly different directions from a point-like source, increases continuously. If the two objects are tied with a string of a given length, then instead of drifting apart further they exchange momentum when their distance has reached the length of the string.

The separating force between two photons side by side depends on the angle between the propagation direction of each photon. If they travel in exactly the same direction, then no force at all is necessary to prevent them from drifting apart. If the angle is small, then the separating force is proportional to the angle.

Take the case of fullerenes. Nobody would have been able to predict their existence from our physical theories. Under certain conditions however, hollow balls consisting of each 60 carbon atoms emerge with ease.

In the same way, certain conditions (e.g. photon densities) may lead to cohesive forces between neighbouring photons. So instead of a continuous increase of the mean distances between photons, continuously increasing strain leads to fissures in the gamma ray field.

Photons of the same fragments have therefore adjusted their directions to each other (by exchanging lateral momentum) so that they continue to constitute a detectable unity, even long after the cohesive forces (having led to fragmentation) have disappeared. Nevertheless, in the end the fragments are lost more and more in the normal gamma background noise.

The hypothesis entails that the occurrence of gamma ray bursts must have a strong statistical component, because it depends on chance whether such gamma-ray fragments originating from far-away sources hit detectors on the earth or not.

Cheers, Wolfgang

(This article is a composition of paragraphs from three posts of mine to sci.astro: post_1, post_2 and post_3)
Sorry Wolfgang, still no, no, no!!! But keep on tryin' - you might hit a home run some day!!!
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