Originally Posted by Loss Leader
Eh? Dogs clearly have the concept of "toy".
Originally Posted by Fellow Traveler
A dog acting "guilty" is showing submissive behaviour, but I'd be interested to see a study on whether there is more to it than that. Dogs learn that there are things they shouldn't do (the couch is off-limits, for example), do them anyway - often surreptitiously - then act submissive when you notice them. Just how complex is the mental model going on in there?