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Old 16th January 2022, 10:59 PM   #41
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We have a LOT of seasonal fruit pickers here from the islands at this time, and many of them are Tongan.

https://www.stuff.co.nz/nelson-mail/...uption-tsunami
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Old 17th January 2022, 02:43 PM   #42
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This link is interesting because they plotted the pressure changes from amateurs' backyard weather stations.

From Spaceweather.com

Quote:
Astronomer Matt Penn and colleagues decided to investigate further. "We plotted the times of barometric pressure peaks from 150 backyard weather stations available on Weather Underground," he explains. This movie sequence shows the data they found:
https://spaceweathergallery.com/indi...load_id=181627
Quote:
We plotted the times of barometric pressure peaks from 150 weather stations, and made a movie sequence from 11:30-16:30UT. It shows the Tongan volcano pressure wave moving across North, Central & parts of South America. (Claude Plymate, Mike Conley, Geri Hall-Conley, Jonathan Mangin and Matt Penn)
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Old 17th January 2022, 02:53 PM   #43
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Considering that there's been no communication (due to severed lines), and after seeing the pressure wave from space, I would be horrified, but not surprised, to find that no one on the island survived. They were right in the blast footprint. I'd think that someone with a satellite phone or something would have been able to get some word out.

(eta) I see now that there have been a few messages received from the island, including some that say they are OK.
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Old 17th January 2022, 02:55 PM   #44
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An Australian aircraft spotted a distress beacon from the islands of Mango and Fonoi.

Quote:
In investigating the distress beacon from the islands of Mango and Fonoi, OCHA said Australia carried out a surveillance flight Monday and reported substantial property damage on the beaches.
UPI
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Old 17th January 2022, 03:01 PM   #45
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Originally Posted by alfaniner View Post
Considering that there's been no communication (due to severed lines), and after seeing the pressure wave from space, I would be horrified, but not surprised, to find that no one on the island survived. They were right in the blast footprint. I'd think that someone with a satellite phone or something would have been able to get some word out.
You seem confused. The volcano that erupted was underwater and related to an uninhabited island. People with satellites phones on inhabited islands have made calls out. Inhabitants had warning to evacuate to high ground and apparently responded well. Also, there are multiple islands.

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Old 17th January 2022, 04:42 PM   #46
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Originally Posted by arthwollipot View Post
So far zero confirmed deaths. I'm seeing reports of three people swept away, but two of them have returned safely. The other is still missing.
The body of the missing woman has been found.
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Old 17th January 2022, 06:17 PM   #47
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Here are some images of the volcanic island preceding and after the eruption. The first three images have their dates included; the third is from just a few hours before the "big" explosion. You can see that the previous day's eruption had already caused the cone and the central portion of the island to collapse. The fourth image is post-eruption. It is consistent with other images from other sources.







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Old 17th January 2022, 06:23 PM   #48
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I've been confused by the name of the volcano - it didn't make a lot of sense to me, and I assumed that I was missing something. I was.

There were two islands - one was called Hunga Tonga and the other was called Hunga Ha'apai. They were joined together by volcanic activity. Hence, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano.

Now it all makes sense!
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Old 17th January 2022, 06:39 PM   #49
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Indeed. You can see the original extent of the two separate islands in the first image above, from November - they still have greenery on them, although that later disappeared as both islands were covered with ejected material.

The two original islands are now once again all that's left, albeit the left-most one in the photos is itself almost completely gone now.

The two islands would represent the visible (i.e., above-water) portions of the rim of a large and ancient subsurface caldera.
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Old 17th January 2022, 07:47 PM   #50
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Some pictures are coming out:

Tonga volcano: first pictures after eruption show islands blanketed in ash, as two deaths confirmed
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Old 17th January 2022, 10:14 PM   #51
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Originally Posted by arthwollipot View Post
Holy Moly... what a mess.

They are going to need a lot of help. I really do not think they have the infrastructure or the equipment to deal with this.
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Old 17th January 2022, 10:18 PM   #52
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Originally Posted by smartcooky View Post
Holy Moly... what a mess.

They are going to need a lot of help. I really do not think they have the infrastructure or the equipment to deal with this.
Unfortunately, all the runways are blanketed with a thick layer of ash, so no aircraft can land.
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Old 18th January 2022, 01:09 AM   #53
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Originally Posted by arthwollipot View Post
Originally Posted by smartcooky View Post
Holy Moly... what a mess.

They are going to need a lot of help. I really do not think they have the infrastructure or the equipment to deal with this.
The tsunami followed by all of that volcanic ash is a vicious one-two punch. It's possible some areas of higher ground were spared from the tsunami, but the whole island was likely covered in ash. This means a lot of equipment likely may not work. I don't know exactly how much damage there might be, but I imagine any perishable food has likely been spoiled.
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Old 18th January 2022, 01:49 AM   #54
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Originally Posted by Puppycow View Post
The tsunami followed by all of that volcanic ash is a vicious one-two punch. It's possible some areas of higher ground were spared from the tsunami, but the whole island was likely covered in ash. This means a lot of equipment likely may not work. I don't know exactly how much damage there might be, but I imagine any perishable food has likely been spoiled.
Just remember that Tonga is not "an island" it is a whole series of Islands, 169 in all of which 36 are inhabited. Many of those islands are a lot closer to the eruption than the main island, Tongatapu where Nukualofa is located. The land area of Tonga is only 750 km2 (290 sq mi) but the various islands are spread over 700,000 km2 (270,000 sq mi) of ocean.
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Old 18th January 2022, 03:14 AM   #55
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Thanks for the clarification.
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Old 18th January 2022, 03:32 AM   #56
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There are some real concerns now building for the approximately 8000 people who live on Ha’apai, a group of about islands scattered on the westerly edge of Tonga. This group is closest to the eruption.

https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/127...nes-still-down
Pakilau Manase Lua says Ha’apai’s three most inhabited islands were Pangai, Tofua and Ha’ano. Following the eruption and the tsunami, Lua said there were reports that Atata Island had been completely submerged underwater. “That’s probably the island that has the highest point in Ha’apai so if that’s submerged ... we’re just hoping for the best right now."
There has been no contact with anyone else on Ha'apai since the eruption on Saturday.
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Old 18th January 2022, 05:20 PM   #57
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While being mindful of the unfolding humanitarian problems, it's not every day an event half a world away is recorded on my cell phone.

My phone has a barometric pressure sensor, and I'm running an app that monitors it and records changes. Here's what it recorded as the pressure wave came through:

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Old 18th January 2022, 10:11 PM   #58
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Cool stuff
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Old 19th January 2022, 12:48 AM   #59
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Things are looking grim for many island in Tonga

https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/300...eing-evacuated

.... tsunami waves generated by the eruption rose up to 15 metres high, hitting the west coasts of Tongatapu islands, ‘Eua and Ha’apai islands.

.... emergency responders were deployed, bringing relief – including food, water and tents – to Ha’apai, as well as the islands of Mango, Fonoifua and Nomuka which suffered the most severe damage.

All houses were destroyed on Mango island and only two houses remain on Fonoifua island. Meanwhile, Nomuka island also suffered extensive damage.
I'll be shocked if the death toll doesn't mount to hundreds.
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Old 19th January 2022, 02:14 AM   #60
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One of my few remaining memories of Tonga is the International Dateline pub. I hope it’s still intact.
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Old 19th January 2022, 06:48 AM   #61
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Originally Posted by smartcooky View Post
I'll be shocked if the death toll doesn't mount to hundreds.
Yeah, news is too iffy to rule out hundreds at this point. The most devastated islands though appear to be very lightly populated although accurate numbers seem hard to come by. Also, reason to be optimistic, they had warning.
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Old 19th January 2022, 06:54 AM   #62
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Some calculations by climate scientists suggest that the eruption did blow sulphur into the upper atmosphere, but it isn't enough to cause more than the most minute sunlight shielding effect.
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Old 19th January 2022, 07:10 AM   #63
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Originally Posted by lionking View Post
One of my few remaining memories of Tonga is the International Dateline pub. I hope it’s still intact.
Is the pub also why you don't have your other memories of Tonga?
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Old 19th January 2022, 10:27 AM   #64
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Someone (Jason A) has collected a bunch of news reports with comments and videos on the incident.
YouTube Video This video is not hosted by the ISF. The ISF can not be held responsible for the suitability or legality of this material. By clicking the link below you agree to view content from an external website.
I AGREE


I found it quite good as a summary.
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Old 19th January 2022, 06:34 PM   #65
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New photos show Tonga tsunami devastation as some phone lines restored
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Old 19th January 2022, 11:41 PM   #66
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Death toll still only a remarkable 3, as this amazing story of survival surfaces: https://www.stuff.co.nz/world/south-...mi-tells-story
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Old 20th January 2022, 12:45 AM   #67
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Originally Posted by arthwollipot View Post
Waves reaching up to 15 metres (49 feet) hit the outer Ha’apia island group, destroying all the houses on the island of Mango, as well as the west coast of Tonga’s main island, Tongatapu, where 56 houses were destroyed or seriously damaged, the prime minister’s office said. The UN said the evacuation of people from these islands was under way.


Some of those islands in the Ha'apai group have highest points lower than 50 feet. I struggle to imagine a scenario where 50 foot waves on a smallish island did not sweep a lot of people away.
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Old 20th January 2022, 08:49 PM   #68
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New video from Geology Hub:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnmsvq2HkG8

Someone earlier mentioned that the sound of his voice is annoying. I know it's a little unusual, but you get used to it. The information he gives is usually pretty informative.

And this is a Guardian video showing new footage of the situation on the ground in Tonga:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PT9h2DVHdY
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Old 20th January 2022, 09:03 PM   #69
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That first one is really informative, all kinds of new stuff.
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Old 20th January 2022, 09:29 PM   #70
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https://news.un.org/en/story/2022/01/1110162

UN report that says most of the islands have now been visited by assessment teams.
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Old 20th January 2022, 09:42 PM   #71
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Aid is arriving from Australia and New Zealand. Just as food and fresh water are running out.
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Old 21st January 2022, 12:44 AM   #72
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I pray for the people hurt, killed and/or devastated by this eruption, and I hope I don't sound heartless, but as usual, science marches on...

-

Quote:

FROM: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00137-z

How the Tonga eruption is helping space scientists understand Mars
Smriti Mallapaty (2022-01-20)

NASA researchers are studying the unusual explosion of submarine volcano Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai to shed light on landforms on the red planet.

NASA scientists say that the eruption of a submarine volcano in Tonga is helping them to understand how features formed on the surfaces of Mars and Venus.

The unusual explosion — which has been calculated at more than 500 times the force of the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945 — is offering researchers a rare chance to study how water and lava interact.

Studying the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai volcano and its evolution in recent weeks is “important for planetary science”, says Petr Brož, a planetary volcanologist at the Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague.

The knowledge “might help us to reveal results of water–lava interactions on the red planet and elsewhere across the Solar System”, he says.

Front-row seat

The volcanic island, which began to form from ash and lava expelled from an undersea volcano in early 2015, piqued the interest of researchers including James Garvin, chief scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, because of its similarity to structures on Mars and possibly also Venus. “We don’t normally get to see islands form,” explains Garvin, but this one offered “a front-row seat”.

Volcanic islands typically last for just months before being eroded away. But Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai survived for years, allowing Garvin’s team to use satellite observations and seafloor surveys to study how such islands form, erode and persist1. The researchers wanted to use that knowledge to understand how small conical volcanoes found on Mars may have formed in the presence of water billions of years ago...

(SNIP)
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Old 6th November 2022, 05:11 PM   #73
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Tongan volcano eruption sent record-breaking cloud of ash more than 57 kilometers into the air, experts say

Quote:
The powerful underwater eruption of Tonga's Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano earlier this year produced a plume that soared higher into Earth's atmosphere than any other on record, according to experts.

Researchers say the plume reached about 57 kilometres into the sky, extending more than halfway to space.
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Old 20th November 2022, 06:41 PM   #74
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The volcano continues to amaze.

The ‘mind-blowing’ sea floor changes caused by Tongan volcanic eruption

Quote:
When the underwater volcano Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai erupted in January this year, scientists knew something extraordinary had happened.

An ash plume shot 57 kilometres into the atmosphere; shock waves rippled through the atmosphere, and the eruption triggered a tsunami that reached heights of more than 19 metres above sea level.

But masked by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, what happened beneath the surface has largely remained a mystery.

In an effort to better understand the sequence of catastrophic events that came both before and after the eruption, scientists have spent the past few months scanning the sea floor looking for clues.

The team of oceanographers, biologists and geologists led by New Zealand’s National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) – with the help of an uncrewed boat remotely controlled from Essex in the UK – joined forces to produce one of the clearest pictures to date of what took place underneath the water.
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