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Tags Australia cases , Australia incidents , dingoes , Lindy Chamberlain , murder cases

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Old 12th June 2012, 02:36 AM   #1
a_unique_person
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Lindy Chamberlain exonerated - a dingo did it.

I couldn't understand the hatred of her at the time. A dingo is a wild dog, they eat things.

When the forensic evidence came up saying that there were holes in their story, I accepted the evidence, but wasn't completely convinced.

When it turned out the forensic evidence was pile of horse ****, I accepted that too.

What I don't get is why, even before the crap forensics, people hated her so much.

http://www.theage.com.au/national/co...612-207qy.html

Quote:
Harmer today said she was ashamed of herself after she performed a stand-up comedy routine in the 1980s that posed the question: "What if they made Lindy Chamberlain The Musi-cal?"
As part of the performance, she re-wrote The Association song "Everyone Knows It's Windy" to "Everyone Knows It's Lindy".
Advertisement: Story continues below
But in light of today's finding by the Northern Territory Deputy Coroner that Azaria Chamberlain was snatched by a dingo, Harmer said satire was no excuse for her comments.
"In pursuit of a laugh, I too carried a burning stick. What was I thinking?" she wrote.
"Such was the firestorm of hatred, all rationality was lost."


Read more: http://www.theage.com.au/national/co...#ixzz1xZPdR2Lc
It really was amazing, how much hatred there was.
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Old 12th June 2012, 03:19 AM   #2
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dingos and dresses

Originally Posted by a_unique_person View Post
It really was amazing, how much hatred there was.
a_unique_person,

Thank you for the quote and link. I think some people objected to the fact that she wore a different dress each day to court. Strange why this should be taken as evidence of guilt.
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Old 12th June 2012, 06:09 AM   #3
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Old 12th June 2012, 06:59 AM   #4
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I heard this earlier this morning. The thing that I could never comprehend was that while there was little or no evidence that the baby had been taken by a dingo, there was equally little or no evidence that Lindy killed her, and yet that was the conclusion that not only the public but the courts went with. Perhaps it was because the dingo story seemed less plausible, but the problem with that is that it was justice by false dilemma. Disproving or discounting one doesn't prove the other. There were other possibilities, too, such as the Azaria being abducted by another person at the camp, etc. Let's face it, just as much evidence for that, or aliens for that matter, as for anything else. I also never understood where the idea about Lindy slitting Azaria's throat with scissors came from. Did they just make that up? Every time I see that mentioned, there is never any hint as to how that originated.

How awful to not only have to deal with the uncertain disappearance and death of your child, but to have to spend four years in prison and to be vilified for the next 32 years of your life.

This whole case vividly illustrates the critically important need for EVIDENCE.
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Old 12th June 2012, 09:48 AM   #5
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Originally Posted by a_unique_person View Post
I couldn't understand the hatred of her at the time...It really was amazing, how much hatred there was.
Mob behavior. Rent "A Cry in the Dark" (1988) and watch a self-congratulatory media and an ambitious prosecutor use an attack on a member of an umpopular Christian sect to flatter themselves. There's a lot of that going around, still (consider the treatment of Sarah Palin, and what's going to happen to Mitt Romney).

Meryl Streep's portrayal of Lindy Chamberlin suggests one reason for the unsympathetic press teatment; she did not respond to the loss of her child as critics imagined a normal human would respond.

A Cry in the Dark
Fred Schepisi directs.
Photography, especially of landscapes, at the usual (very high) standard of Australian films and Australian directors (Peter Weir; Picnic at Hanging Rock, Witness; Bruce Beresford: Breaker Morant, Tender Mercies, Black Robe).
Schepisi also directed the beautiful and wrenching "The Chant of Jimmy Blacksmith".
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Old 12th June 2012, 09:54 AM   #6
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Wow, 30 years. What took them so long? It was established years ago that dingoes are dangerous, will attack and kill children.

I know they had been trying for this result for awhile. I'm sure they are relieved
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Old 12th June 2012, 10:34 AM   #7
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scissors

Originally Posted by Psi Baba View Post
I also never understood where the idea about Lindy slitting Azaria's throat with scissors came from. Did they just make that up? Every time I see that mentioned, there is never any hint as to how that originated.

How awful to not only have to deal with the uncertain disappearance and death of your child, but to have to spend four years in prison and to be vilified for the next 32 years of your life.

This whole case vividly illustrates the critically important need for EVIDENCE.
The forensic worker (Joyce Kuhl) thought that she had found blood on the scissors, but her methodology was flawed. There was also speculation that scissors had been used to cut Azaria's clothing. "When asked whether the scissors found in the car had been used to cut the jumpsuit during the testing, he admitted that they had not, as their first attempt to do so had caused the scissors to fall apart. They had in fact used a larger, sturdier pair of scissors."
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Old 12th June 2012, 12:09 PM   #8
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Sadder still is that she'll forever be thought of as a murderer by much of the populace regardless of any formal exoneration process. People don't change their minds very easily.

What's the deal with those dogs anyway? Are they like coyotes are here, vermin that you can kill when you find them?
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Old 12th June 2012, 12:43 PM   #9
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Originally Posted by Sir Robin Goodfellow View Post
Sadder still is that she'll forever be thought of as a murderer by much of the populace regardless of any formal exoneration process. People don't change their minds very easily.

What's the deal with those dogs anyway? Are they like coyotes are here, vermin that you can kill when you find them?

After all this time and after all this evidence, I think the consensus is that she was entirely innocent and wrongfully imprisoned. The baby's elder brothers (4 and 6 yo at the time of her disappearance) had also been suspected (their early school years must have been quite unpleasant), and are now similarly (and very belatedly) regarded as innocent.

As for dingoes, they are protected in national parks, but elsewhere they would be shot on sight. (Note that I have read that 'modern' dingoes have a lot of feral dog in them; i.e. wild domestic dogs have interbred with them.)
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Old 12th June 2012, 01:29 PM   #10
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The 'law' gets fixated upon a certain person and will go to any lengths to produce evidence to convict while hiding or even destroying evidence that may be proof of evidence..

Those who 'investigated' the crime (what ever it was) should have to serve the same amount of time in prison as their victim....
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Old 12th June 2012, 02:01 PM   #11
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I think part of it is that many people thought it a ridiculous scenario.

As if you told me right now in the USA that an opossum had carried off an infant.

The animal was not seen as capable of the act.

Everybody was wrong, as it happens, but the anger was because they thought this woman had concocted a ridiculous story.
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Old 12th June 2012, 02:13 PM   #12
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Originally Posted by Sir Robin Goodfellow View Post
Sadder still is that she'll forever be thought of as a murderer by much of the populace regardless of any formal exoneration process. People don't change their minds very easily.

What's the deal with those dogs anyway? Are they like coyotes are here, vermin that you can kill when you find them?
A lot of Northern Territorians will always consider her a killer, but not so much in the more civilized parts of Australia

As for dingoes, they can make great pets.
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Old 12th June 2012, 02:33 PM   #13
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Originally Posted by BenBurch View Post
I think part of it is that many people thought it a ridiculous scenario. As if you told me right now in the USA that an opossum had carried off an infant. The animal was not seen as capable of the act.
Everybody was wrong, as it happens, but the anger was because they thought this woman had concocted a ridiculous story.
Maybe. I expect religious bigotry and mob piling-on had something to do with it. Dingos are medium-sized dogs (think, a lean Labrador retriever). A nine-week human infant might weigh ten pounds.
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Old 12th June 2012, 02:55 PM   #14
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Originally Posted by Malcolm Kirkpatrick View Post
Maybe. I expect religious bigotry and mob piling-on had something to do with it. Dingos are medium-sized dogs (think, a lean Labrador retriever). A nine-week human infant might weigh ten pounds.
Unaware of the religion angle; Were they Scientologists or some similar thing?
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Old 12th June 2012, 02:59 PM   #15
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I always believed it was the dingoes and I always felt sad for the mother.
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Old 12th June 2012, 03:00 PM   #16
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Originally Posted by BenBurch View Post
Unaware of the religion angle; Were they Scientologists or some similar thing?
Seventh Day Adventists. There was a ridiculous rumor published in the tabloids that "Azaria" meant "sacrifice in the wilderness" or something similar.

The religious angle played a part, but so equally did Lindy's cool, carm behavior to the media. She didn't play the hysterical, bereaved mother role expected of her. The hatred of her at the time was certainly media driven.
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Old 12th June 2012, 03:08 PM   #17
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Dingo dingo

Originally Posted by BenBurch View Post
Unaware of the religion angle; Were they Scientologists or some similar thing?
The religious angle got hashed out in another thread. IMHO bad forensic science deserves a significant share of the blame for the wrongful conviction.
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Old 12th June 2012, 03:17 PM   #18
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Originally Posted by BenBurch View Post
I think part of it is that many people thought it a ridiculous scenario.

As if you told me right now in the USA that an opossum had carried off an infant.

The animal was not seen as capable of the act.

Everybody was wrong, as it happens, but the anger was because they thought this woman had concocted a ridiculous story.

I never understood why it was ridiculous though. I discussed this with an Aussie guy some years back and he said the dingo is a really small dog. He wasn't sure about the case, but he had a lot of his doubts because of the size of the dingo. We had golden retrievers that retrieved ducks. Some of those ducks were quite large and wouldn't have weighed that much less than a baby.


The dingo looks more like a coyote size to me. I don't see a baby's size being a real struggle for them.




Golden retievers seems to be about the same size.

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Old 12th June 2012, 03:39 PM   #19
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Originally Posted by Magic 9-Ball View Post
Wow, 30 years. What took them so long? It was established years ago that dingoes are dangerous, will attack and kill children.

I know they had been trying for this result for awhile. I'm sure they are relieved
The sad fact is that it didn't, the first inquest shortly after the event came to the conclusion based on the evidence that a dingo had taken her. It wasn't until the incorrect forensic evidence was introduced that it became a murder. What was even sadder was that the third inquest judge didn't have the balls to do what this one has, and so left it as an open verdict. Now with evidence of over 200 dingo attacks since 1990, three of them fatal, this case can finally be laid to rest.
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Old 12th June 2012, 08:57 PM   #20
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We now have the death certificate stated that a dingo took the baby. Truth took 32 years to be done. The first inquest stated clearly the TRUTH Yet the highly paid people of this world got this woman 3 years in prison.
It is time that these people paid for their errors instead of have the tax payer pay.

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Old 13th June 2012, 01:57 AM   #21
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Originally Posted by Robert2 View Post
We now have the death certificate stated that a dingo took the baby. Truth took 32 years to be done. The first inquest stated clearly the TRUTH Yet the highly paid people of this world got this woman 3 years in prison.
It is time that these people paid for their errors instead of have the tax payer pay.
Couldn't agree more Robert2, and welcome to the forum. Aussie?
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Old 13th June 2012, 02:07 AM   #22
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Originally Posted by JihadJane View Post
We still live in a patriarchy. Women are hated for their sexual and reproductive power.

We need look no further than JREF to see people hating a young woman for her supposed crimes, even after she has been exonerated.
The first person I heard say that it wasn't a dingo, that the mother did it, (and this was right at the start, before the 'forensics' debacle), was a woman.
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Old 13th June 2012, 02:17 AM   #23
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Originally Posted by a_unique_person View Post
The first person I heard say that it wasn't a dingo, that the mother did it, (and this was right at the start, before the 'forensics' debacle), was a woman.
Same here. Lindy apparently didn't behave as a "real" bereaved mother should.
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Old 13th June 2012, 02:23 AM   #24
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Originally Posted by JihadJane View Post
We still live in a patriarchy. Women are hated for their sexual and reproductive power.

We need look no further than JREF to see people hating a young woman for her supposed crimes, even after she has been exonerated.
I don't understand, was it a female dingo?
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Old 13th June 2012, 03:05 AM   #25
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Originally Posted by lionking View Post
A lot of Northern Territorians will always consider her a killer, but not so much in the more civilized parts of Australia

As for dingoes, they can make great pets.
Still true? I was living in Alice Springs when the event happened. I thought she did it at the time but no longer. Some things that made me believe that then were:

That the baby was carried out of a tent containing two other sleeping children.
That dingos were too wary of people (Fraser Island experiences tell us otherwise).
The forensic claims that Azaria's jumpsuit had been cut.
Suspicions raised about the finding of the jumpsuit.
The alleged blood splatter marks in the car that were explained at the time as the result of the Chamberlains picking up an accident Vitim. Later said to be sound deadening material spayed on the firewall.
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Old 13th June 2012, 03:12 AM   #26
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Glad they've had the outcome that the evidence always seemed to support.

What I don't understand is why they've substituted a middle age woman in all the recent news clips. As far as I recall she's only a young person, I know this has taken a few years to get cleared-up but.... what 30 years ago? ... astonishing. What incredible tenacity they've shown.

One quick question as I can't remember - why was only the mother charged?
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Old 13th June 2012, 03:20 AM   #27
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Originally Posted by Darat View Post
One quick question as I can't remember - why was only the mother charged?
Michael was charged with being an accessory. Apparently, the police believed Lindy killed the baby as she reported seeing the dingo, when she in fact killed the baby. Michael claimed to see nothing.

No motive, no body, no weapon.......
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Old 13th June 2012, 03:20 AM   #28
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Originally Posted by Darat View Post
Glad they've had the outcome that the evidence always seemed to support.

What I don't understand is why they've substituted a middle age woman in all the recent news clips. As far as I recall she's only a young person, I know this has taken a few years to get cleared-up but.... what 30 years ago? ... astonishing. What incredible tenacity they've shown.

One quick question as I can't remember - why was only the mother charged?
Michael was charged as an accessory. The prosecution shoehorned the murder into Lindy's 10-minute absence from the camp when she went to the car.
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Old 13th June 2012, 04:22 AM   #29
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Originally Posted by a_unique_person View Post
I couldn't understand the hatred of her at the time. A dingo is a wild dog, they eat things.

When the forensic evidence came up saying that there were holes in their story, I accepted the evidence, but wasn't completely convinced.

When it turned out the forensic evidence was pile of horse ****, I accepted that too.

What I don't get is why, even before the crap forensics, people hated her so much.

It really was amazing, how much hatred there was.

You have neatly described exactly what I thought when I thought about the matter at all. Perhaps Lindy Chamberlain's great crime was remaining stoical and psychologically strong in the face of almost universal misunderstanding and denigration.

I hope more of those who pursued and punished an innocent woman and her family will follow Wendy Harmer's example - those who are still alive 30 years on.
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Old 13th June 2012, 06:47 AM   #30
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Originally Posted by Magic 9-Ball View Post
Wow, 30 years. What took them so long? It was established years ago that dingoes are dangerous, will attack and kill children.

I know they had been trying for this result for awhile. I'm sure they are relieved
There were a number of complicating factors, besides the lack of desire on the part of the authorities to accept their mistakes.
There were a number of issues with the third inquest (which brought in an open verdict due to lack of evidence back in 1995) and the second inquest (murder) which may not have been compliant with the Coroners Acts.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
The forensic worker (Joyce Kuhl) thought that she had found blood on the scissors, but her methodology was flawed. There was also speculation that scissors had been used to cut Azaria's clothing. "When asked whether the scissors found in the car had been used to cut the jumpsuit during the testing, he admitted that they had not, as their first attempt to do so had caused the scissors to fall apart. They had in fact used a larger, sturdier pair of scissors."
Describing the forensics as "flawed" is, in my opinion, overly charitable; they were rubbish. The police failed to take control samples (which would have shown that one of their tests was utterly flawed) and destroyed samples, thus ensuring that their tests could not be examined properly.
Then there's the behaviour of James Cameron............
In my opinion (again) the destruction of the samples and plates used in testing denied the defense the ability to properly cross-examine the scientific evidence and should have lead to it being deemed inadmissible.

Originally Posted by BenBurch View Post
Unaware of the religion angle; Were they Scientologists or some similar thing?
Ooop, already covered.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
The religious angle got hashed out in another thread. IMHO bad forensic science deserves a significant share of the blame for the wrongful conviction.
Oh yes.

Originally Posted by Robert2 View Post
We now have the death certificate stated that a dingo took the baby. Truth took 32 years to be done. The first inquest stated clearly the TRUTH Yet the highly paid people of this world got this woman 3 years in prison.
It is time that these people paid for their errors instead of have the tax payer pay.
Well Cameron, who I consider should have faced at least disciplinary proceedings, is dead.

Originally Posted by Darat View Post
Glad they've had the outcome that the evidence always seemed to support.

What I don't understand is why they've substituted a middle age woman in all the recent news clips. As far as I recall she's only a young person, I know this has taken a few years to get cleared-up but.... what 30 years ago? ... astonishing. What incredible tenacity they've shown.

One quick question as I can't remember - why was only the mother charged?
Michael Chamberlain guilty of being an accessory after the fact back in '82. The police couldn't fit him into their timeline for the supposed murder.

Originally Posted by Sideroxylon View Post
*Yawn* Wendy Harmer, the comic in the article, is also a woman.
Just Ignore JJ.
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Old 13th June 2012, 07:55 AM   #31
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Mod Warning A number of off-topic posts about "woman-hating" have been split to AAH. If you want to start a topic about that, you may, but I don't think these posts would make an auspicious beginning, as they're already starting to get uncivil.
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Old 13th June 2012, 09:13 AM   #32
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Originally Posted by catsmate1 View Post
Describing the forensics as "flawed" is, in my opinion, overly charitable; they were rubbish. The police failed to take control samples (which would have shown that one of their tests was utterly flawed) and destroyed samples, thus ensuring that their tests could not be examined properly.
Then there's the behaviour of James Cameron............
In my opinion (again) the destruction of the samples and plates used in testing denied the defense the ability to properly cross-examine the scientific evidence and should have lead to it being deemed inadmissible
catsmate,

I was probably being overly charitable. At least one of the state's witnesses implied that the ortho-tolidine presumptive test for blood could not yield false positives. Some of the positive results were in parts of the car which were not accessible unless one removed panels. These areas should have been considered substrate controls, IMO. When a substrate control* is positive, it should signal people that something is not as it seems. Ms. Kuhl's hemoglobin F tests were (from what I can gather) just something that she devised on her own, as opposed to being something that was in the scientific literature. I agree that the destruction of the plates was bad practice. I would also add that the hemoglobin F tests were done 13 months after the Azaria's death. I have doubts that hemoglobin would not denature after that time and under extremes of temperature.

*Peter Gill wrote about substrate controls in a different context, "The original concept of the substrate control was to test for spurious reactions with environmental contaminants such as vegetable extracts..."
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Old 13th June 2012, 09:24 AM   #33
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Originally Posted by Sir Robin Goodfellow View Post
Sadder still is that she'll forever be thought of as a murderer by much of the populace regardless of any formal exoneration process. People don't change their minds very easily.

What's the deal with those dogs anyway? Are they like coyotes are here, vermin that you can kill when you find them?
No, they're a protected native species, but can be controlled in certain areas, such as around sheep farms and the like.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dingo#Legal_status
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Old 13th June 2012, 09:47 AM   #34
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Let's all meet back here in thirty years to rehash this case. There should be some new evidence by then.
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Old 13th June 2012, 10:04 AM   #35
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Originally Posted by Howie Felterbush View Post
Let's all meet back here in thirty years to rehash this case. There should be some new evidence by then.
I hope I'm still around to do so. Doubtful.
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Old 13th June 2012, 05:20 PM   #36
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'From Fairy to Witch: Imagery and Myth in the Azaria case.' (1984)

***She was a beautiful little girl, so natural - a little fairy (Mrs E M Waterhouse of Whakatane, New Zealand, referring to Lindy Chamberlain, Daily Telegraph, November 1, 1983.)

"I feel that I am the victim of a medieval witch-hunt (Lindy Chamberlain, Woman's Day, October 1, 1980.)

...

Azaria and Lindy Chamberlain have slowly been absorbed into Australian folklore, their tragedy told and retold until it no longer stirs so strongly the surges of disquiet and morbid fascination. They have become a nation's obsession, producing prodigious newspaper copy and endless legal speculation as well as a particular genre of jokes and graffiti. According to Sanders, the case was surrounded by 'an incontinent excessive discourse that subverted the official attempts at closure' ... . The imagery which informed the public discourse was peppered with potent allusions to creatures and moods of other times and other places long past. The spectre of Lindy as witch was rarely articulated, yet the notion percolated just beneath the constantly informing the imagery which pervaded the discussion. The discussion surrounding the case clearly illustrates just how deeply the figure of the witch has permeated our cultural forms. The para*phernalia of witchcraft pervades our humour, our art, our literature, our mythologies and our history. The witch 'has come to be seen as both a scapegoat and saviour, a figure of fun and a figure of menace, a model for women and a cautionary antimodel' ... . As a symbol of female freedom, power and sexuality, the witch also represents and reminds women of the potential brutal retribution which the exercise of this freedom, power and sexuality can bring.

...

A patriarchal social order such as ours depends for its very existence on hordes of 'perfect little mothers' assigned responsibility for the biological and social reproduction of the species. Lindy, by even raising the possibility of having killed her child, like many women before her, struck at one of the pivots of patriarchy, as did the medieval witches who used their female magical power to defy the laws of nature in the service of Satan (Bovenschen, 1978:97). Every woman was a potential witch. Lindy, in so many ways, crystallised the particular fears and passions inherent in motherhood today: defending one's child from the enemy within the nuclear family as well as the enemy without.
***
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Old 13th June 2012, 06:12 PM   #37
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Originally Posted by Howie Felterbush View Post
Let's all meet back here in thirty years to rehash this case. There should be some new evidence by then.
One good reason to rehash an old, high-profile case is to use it as impetus for reforms. I see the same mistakes (forensic and otherwise) in more recent cases. Sadly, I don't perceive much zeal for desirable changes in our criminal justice systems.
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Old 14th June 2012, 06:13 AM   #38
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Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
catsmate,

I was probably being overly charitable. At least one of the state's witnesses implied that the ortho-tolidine presumptive test for blood could not yield false positives.
I'd have to check but I think this was Kuhl's supervisor and he didn't just imply this.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
Some of the positive results were in parts of the car which were not accessible unless one removed panels. These areas should have been considered substrate controls, IMO.
True. Plus there's the issue of false positives from copper dust, which wasn't tested for at all.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
When a substrate control* is positive, it should signal people that something is not as it seems. Ms. Kuhl's hemoglobin F tests were (from what I can gather) just something that she devised on her own, as opposed to being something that was in the scientific literature.
I *believe* that the manufacturer later stated definitively that the test wasn't suitable for determination of foetal blood.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
I agree that the destruction of the plates was bad practice.
I'd go further and say that it should have caused the forensic evidence to be excluded as it ruled out any chance of independent tests.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
I would also add that the hemoglobin F tests were done 13 months after the Azaria's death. I have doubts that hemoglobin would not denature after that time and under extremes of temperature.
Agreed. And this is something Kuhl admitted she had no experience with.

Originally Posted by halides1 View Post
*Peter Gill wrote about substrate controls in a different context, "The original concept of the substrate control was to test for spurious reactions with environmental contaminants such as vegetable extracts..."
Orthotolidine was also shown to react with copper, later testing around the Chamberlain's home (and in other cars from the area) showed extensive copper contamination and reacted positively with the test.
The alleged "spray of blood" from which the swabs were taken turned out to be a common sound-dampening treatment used on that model of car; examination of other cars found nearly identical spray patterns.
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Old 14th June 2012, 09:40 AM   #39
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Originally Posted by George152 View Post
The 'law' gets fixated upon a certain person and will go to any lengths to produce evidence to convict while hiding or even destroying evidence that may be proof of evidence innocence (presumably?)..

This. We see it in case after case after case. And yet still there are judges who will believe any rubbish the police present, and seem convinced that nobody would be charged unless they were guilty.

We see it in other threads in this forum, where rational explanations of why a police investigation became misdirected and went hell-for-leather after an innocent person and sought to minimise or excuse the culpability of others are howled down as "conspiracy theories".

There is a deep-seated cancer at the heart of criminal investigation in many countries, something the Americans call the "Chicago cop syndrome". I don't know what can be done about it. I do think it would be a significant advance if people stopped this "no smoke without fire" approach and held all police accusations to reasonable standards of critical thinking.

Rolfe.
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Old 14th June 2012, 03:53 PM   #40
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Originally Posted by Rolfe View Post
This. We see it in case after case after case. And yet still there are judges who will believe any rubbish the police present, and seem convinced that nobody would be charged unless they were guilty.

We see it in other threads in this forum, where rational explanations of why a police investigation became misdirected and went hell-for-leather after an innocent person and sought to minimise or excuse the culpability of others are howled down as "conspiracy theories".

There is a deep-seated cancer at the heart of criminal investigation in many countries, something the Americans call the "Chicago cop syndrome". I don't know what can be done about it. I do think it would be a significant advance if people stopped this "no smoke without fire" approach and held all police accusations to reasonable standards of critical thinking.

Rolfe.
Agree whole-heartedly. It's hard to see what can be done about it as long as decision-makers fail (or choose not) to recognise that it's happening; it's a bit easier to suggest what they would do if there was real commitment to cure the problem: it would be a start to make police and judges accountable for their mistakes. Instead of that, there continues to be the incentive to "achieve" a conviction - rather than establish the truth - and getting it wrong doesn't seem to be a consideration.

What is more of a puzzle and perhaps more distressing is how it seems so easy for convictions based on faulty and frankly dishonest investigations, to gain support among the general public.
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