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Old 14th July 2023, 02:32 PM   #241
welshdean
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Originally Posted by jadebox View Post
Yes. Fat is lost mostly through carbon dioxide. So you breathe it out. That helps me understand one reason that losing weight is so difficult.
Thunderfoot did a good vid about this a few years ago.
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Old 16th July 2023, 09:09 PM   #242
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Most of your body is made up of CHONK with a few trace elements.
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Old 17th July 2023, 02:10 AM   #243
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Originally Posted by arthwollipot View Post
Most of your body is made up of CHONK with a few trace elements.
Googling didn't help, so could you explain?

There's a lot more Ca and P in your body than K
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Old 17th July 2023, 04:32 AM   #244
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Our eyes have 3 types of photoreceptors. Mantis shrimp have 12 including 1 infrared and 3 ultraviolet and see polarizes light. So they see many "colours" we can't conceptualise.
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Old 17th July 2023, 09:59 PM   #245
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Originally Posted by GlennB View Post
Googling didn't help, so could you explain?

There's a lot more Ca and P in your body than K
I've always heard this as CHON, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. But I'm about as far from a biologist as anyone can be, so I'm not sure where potassium (K) fits in.
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Old 17th July 2023, 10:36 PM   #246
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Originally Posted by JimOfAllTrades View Post
I've always heard this as CHON, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. But I'm about as far from a biologist as anyone can be, so I'm not sure where potassium (K) fits in.
Potassium fits because it makes a fun word. In terms of biochemistry, GlennB is more correct.
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Old 18th July 2023, 01:00 AM   #247
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Originally Posted by Wudang View Post
Our eyes have 3 types of photoreceptors. Mantis shrimp have 12 including 1 infrared and 3 ultraviolet and see polarizes light. So they see many "colours" we can't conceptualise.
No! Humans normally have four types of photoreceptors three colour receptors in cones, red, green, blue; and rods are non-colour specific (blue/green). Cones are predominantly around the centre of vision and provide detail, rods are dominant at the edge of vision and detect movement / changes in light and are low light sensitive, provide night vision. In particular light levels where all four photoreceptor contribute you may be able to see colours not normally visible.

Some women are tetra chromatic having an additional cone photoreceptor, this is related to the gene causing colour blindness in men. They can distinguish variations in colour not visible to normal humans.

Fun fact; humans retinas can detect near UV, the blue photoreceptors are sensitive to near UV, BUT the lens filters UV so no UV light gets to the retina to be seen. People who have had the lens removed can see into the UV spectrum.

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/2...r-human-vision

Second fun fact; humans can detect polarised light, it is thought the vikings may have used this ability to navigate.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art...macula%20lutea.

How to see polarised light.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...60982220318893

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Old 18th July 2023, 05:12 AM   #248
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Originally Posted by Planigale View Post
No! Humans normally have four types of photoreceptors three colour receptors in cones, red, green, blue; and rods are non-colour specific (blue/green).
Oh ffs. I knew that so why did I....

Thanks for that. Interesting.
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Old 18th July 2023, 08:25 AM   #249
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The other thing with the shrimp is that the abundance of photoreceptors contrasts with basically no visual post-processing. We do a lot of post so when our red and blue receptors are both going off we perceive purple; apparantly the mantis shrimp does not do this and instead just has a dedicated receptor for each wavelength that is most important to it and that signal gets piped to its perception more or less directly.
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Old 18th July 2023, 08:31 AM   #250
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On the theme of perception I've watched about half of this so far.
YouTube Video This video is not hosted by the ISF. The ISF can not be held responsible for the suitability or legality of this material. By clicking the link below you agree to view content from an external website.
I AGREE


Link to announcement of new BBC channel on YT. "Fractured reality"
https://www.bbc.co.uk/mediacentre/bb...hes-on-youtube
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Old 19th July 2023, 10:41 AM   #251
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This may be well-known to others, but I just learned that our sense of smell bypasses the thalamus:

Quote:
Smell bypasses the thalamus, which Dalton calls the ‘consciousness detector.’

“(It goes) directly to the primary olfactory cortex, and that may be why we experience odors in a different way than we do other kinds of sensory stimuli,” Dalton said.

Because scent skips the thalamus, smells can enter our brains and attach to memories without us consciously registering or processing them. Research shows smell is the only sense that is active even while we sleep, or are in a coma.
Source
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Old 19th July 2023, 11:37 AM   #252
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Originally Posted by ZirconBlue View Post
This may be well-known to others, but I just learned that our sense of smell bypasses the thalamus:



Source
"Research shows smell is the only sense that is active even while we sleep, or are in a coma."

How is it, then, that my alarm clock wakes me up?
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Old 19th July 2023, 11:54 AM   #253
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Originally Posted by GlennB View Post
"Research shows smell is the only sense that is active even while we sleep, or are in a coma."

How is it, then, that my alarm clock wakes me up?
The smell of bacon cooking in the morning wakes this mother ****** up more reliably than setting off an M-80 under my pillow.
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Old 19th July 2023, 12:21 PM   #254
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Originally Posted by Thermal View Post
The smell of bacon cooking in the morning wakes this mother ****** up more reliably than setting off an M-80 under my pillow.
I hear you brother!
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Old 19th July 2023, 12:39 PM   #255
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Originally Posted by Thermal View Post
The smell of bacon cooking in the morning wakes this mother ****** up more reliably than setting off an M-80 under my pillow.
If I want the smell of bacon cooking in the morning I have to wake up and cook it.
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Old 20th July 2023, 09:29 AM   #256
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Originally Posted by GlennB View Post
"Research shows smell is the only sense that is active even while we sleep, or are in a coma."

How is it, then, that my alarm clock wakes me up?
Good question!
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Old 20th July 2023, 01:03 PM   #257
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Originally Posted by GlennB View Post
"Research shows smell is the only sense that is active even while we sleep, or are in a coma."

How is it, then, that my alarm clock wakes me up?
I guess he meant that smell skips the reticular activation system which monitors senses and decides which ones to pass on while you are sleeping.

When I took psychology in college I was doing well on a test so when I came across the question "What does RAS stand for?" I answered with my name since those are my initials.

Whoever was grading the test had a sense of humor since my answer was marked as correct.
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Old 24th July 2023, 07:57 AM   #258
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The Last of Us

There is a fungus, Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, that turns a species of ants or certain other insects into zombies (sort of). Hypoxanthine, sphingosine, and guanidinobutyric acid (which is similar in structure to gamma-aminobutyric acid) are among the compounds that may be part of how the fungus controls the ant's brain. I have never seen The Last of Us, but this is the fungus that inspired it.
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Old 24th July 2023, 11:48 PM   #259
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Some of you are going to say, I knew that.

I've known about the double slit experiment forever. What I didn't know, or didn't remember I'd heard until I was watching a science lecture tonight was that if you put a detector by the second slit to record if the photons are going through both slits then the interference pattern disappears.

I am fascinated and confused how observations can cause waveforms to collapse.
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Old 25th July 2023, 12:38 AM   #260
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Quantum mechanics is a fascinating and confusing subject.
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Old 25th July 2023, 04:10 AM   #261
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British Red squirrels are the only known rodent host for Leprosy.
https://www.google.co.uk/url?extensi..._squirrels.pdf
They likely got infected from humans. Possibly because in mediaeval times Squirrels were kept as pets.
https://rosaliegilbert.com/petkeeping.html
http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/h...o?bibId=280946

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Old 25th July 2023, 06:19 AM   #262
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Surprised they were kept as pets. I know quite a few people that have been bitten by squirrels, they can be right vicious barstools when they are cornered. Would have thought the being bit by the wild ones would have been the more probable source of cross infection.
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Old 25th July 2023, 07:20 AM   #263
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Originally Posted by Darat View Post
Surprised they were kept as pets. I know quite a few people that have been bitten by squirrels, they can be right vicious barstools when they are cornered. Would have thought the being bit by the wild ones would have been the more probable source of cross infection.
Leprosy is an old infection in humans. Squirrels have human leprosy (and only in Britain), so it almost certainly went from humans to squirrels. All the mediaeval illustrations show squirrels as pets of women, perhaps they just don't like men! Leprosy is airborne spread by droplets from the airways, and probably needs prolonged exposure, so escaped or freed pet seems more likely. A squirrel catching it from biting a man seems less likely.
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Old 25th July 2023, 03:40 PM   #264
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Originally Posted by Darat View Post
Surprised they were kept as pets. I know quite a few people that have been bitten by squirrels, they can be right vicious barstools when they are cornered. Would have thought the being bit by the wild ones would have been the more probable source of cross infection.
You do know that squirrels were so named because they were owned by Squires and Earls, right?

Huh, that almost sounds reasonable.
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Old 26th July 2023, 01:21 AM   #265
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Originally Posted by Ryan O'Dine View Post
You do know that squirrels were so named because they were owned by Squires and Earls, right?

Huh, that almost sounds reasonable.
That's not right!
They were aquatic until the 1400's and were related to both squids and eels. The archaic pronunciation of squid was 'skwii'.
I read that on the internet, so I know it's true!
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Old 26th July 2023, 05:10 AM   #266
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Originally Posted by welshdean View Post
That's not right!
They were aquatic until the 1400's and were related to both squids and eels. The archaic pronunciation of squid was 'skwii'.
I read that on the internet, so I know it's true!
I think we're going to have to agree to disagree on this one (by which I mean, agree that you're wrong and disagree that I'm wrong).
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Old 10th August 2023, 09:16 AM   #267
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https://masto.ai/@vagina_museum/110174071288444676

The platypus has 5 pairs of XY chromosomes.
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Old 11th August 2023, 12:35 AM   #268
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Platypussies are weird.
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Old 11th August 2023, 01:29 AM   #269
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This was supposed to be the case, Rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere drive an increase in plant photosynthesis—an effect known as the carbon fertilization effect (Jan 27, 2022), but apparently plants find it harder to absorb carbon dioxide amid global warming (New Scientist, Aug 10, 2023):
Quote:
A modeling study suggests that increases in photosynthesis have slowed since 2000, opposing previous research that said this effect would remain strong, helping to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere
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Old 12th August 2023, 01:09 AM   #270
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This one will come as a shock to most of you: Mozart's music doesn't assuage epilepsy.
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"Stupidity renders itself invisible by assuming very large proportions. Completely unreasonable claims are irrefutable. Ni-en-leh pointed out that a philosopher might get into trouble by claiming that two times two makes five, but he does not risk much by claiming that two times two makes shoe polish." B. Brecht
"The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusion about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions." K. Marx
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Old 12th August 2023, 04:38 AM   #271
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Originally Posted by dann View Post
This one will come as a shock to most of you: Mozart's music doesn't assuage epilepsy.
He would be so disappointed to learn this.
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Old 12th August 2023, 02:55 PM   #272
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Sámi tribes, according to the Arktikum Science Museum in one of their exhibitions re the Aurora Borealis, believed that these spooky wavering lights in the northern winter sky were spirits and that these spirits were speaking to them. They would put all their worldly goods onto a sled and cover them over, out of some kind of fear of these supernatural events.

Of course, thanks to noticing the effect on a compass needle when the northern lights are active, scientists were able to ascertain that the lights were the result of geomagnetic phenomena.

Quote:
When a solar storm comes toward us, some of the energy and small particles can travel down the magnetic field lines at the north and south poles into Earth's atmosphere. There, the particles interact with gases in our atmosphere resulting in beautiful displays of light in the sky. Oxygen gives off green and red light.

What Is an Aurora? - NASA Space Place

NASA Space Place (.gov)
https://spaceplace.nasa.gov › aurora
Here's the thing. It wasn't until 2012 that an acoustics researcher at Aalto University recorded the 'voices' which were apx 70 metres above the ground during the appearance of the northern lights.

Quote:
[Professor Unto K Laine] recorded hundreds of sound events in Fiskars where the temperature was at -20 °C. I selected the 60 loudest events, the sources of which were directly above the recording microphone array. The magnetic pulses that preceded these sounds proved that their sources were at an altitude of approximately 75 metres. On the same night, the Finnish Meteorological Institute carried out its own measurements, which proved that the inversion layer was located at the same altitude where these noises were born. The correlation between the strength of the magnetic pulses and the loudness of the sounds was also strong.
So whilst people assumed the Sámi were just being superstitious, they knew about these northern light noises all the time.

The science behind the sounds is as follows:

Quote:
According to the new inversion layer hypothesis, the popping and crackling sounds associated with the Northern Lights are born when the related geomagnetic storm activates the charges that have accumulated in the atmosphere's inversion layer causing them to discharge.

'Temperatures generally drops the higher the altitude. However, when temperatures are well below zero and, generally in clear and calm weather conditions during the evening and night, the cold is near the surface and the air is warmer higher up. This warm air does not mix, instead rising up towards a colder layer carrying negative charges from the ground. The inversion layer forms a kind of lid hindering the vertical movements of the charges. The colder air above it is charged positively. Finally, a geomagnetic storm causes the accumulated charges to discharge with sparks that create measurable magnetic pulses and sounds' Mr Laine, who is now a professor emeritus, explained.
https://www.aalto.fi/en/news/acousti...auroral-sounds
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Old 10th September 2023, 09:36 PM   #273
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The weak force isn't actually weak. It's quite strong. It just happens rarely, which is slightly different.
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Old 10th September 2023, 10:17 PM   #274
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Originally Posted by a_unique_person View Post
The weak force isn't actually weak. It's quite strong. It just happens rarely, which is slightly different.


"Of these four forces, there's one we don't really understand." "Is it the weak force or the strong--" "It's gravity."
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Old 11th September 2023, 12:05 AM   #275
rjh01
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For those that are too lazy to educate themselves here is an article about the four forces (or is there only one force?) https://www.space.com/four-fundamental-forces.html
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Old 11th September 2023, 04:24 AM   #276
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I think I've heard it said that gravity is not a force.

Also the electromagnetic force and the weak force are actually the same force: the Electroweak force. So that would get it down to only two forces: The strong force and the electroweak force.
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Old 11th September 2023, 04:41 AM   #277
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Originally Posted by Puppycow View Post
I think I've heard it said that gravity is not a force.

Also the electromagnetic force and the weak force are actually the same force: the Electroweak force. So that would get it down to only two forces: The strong force and the electroweak force.

According to Einstein it is generated by the warping of space time. (My understanding of the science )


What happens at quantum level? Who knows.
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Old 11th September 2023, 07:19 AM   #278
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Originally Posted by Puppycow View Post
I think I've heard it said that gravity is not a force.
In a sense, yes. Force = mass * acceleration, but only if you're measuring acceleration from an inertial reference frame.

In a non-inertial reference frame, you can get all sorts of pseudo-forces like the centrifugal and coriolis force in rotating reference frames. These forces aren't real, they are artifacts of working in a non-inertial reference frame.

In general relativity, you actually cannot have global inertial reference frames, you can only have locally inertial reference frames. And a locally inertial reference frame is a free-falling reference frame. Objects not acted on by a force will follow a geodesic (the curved space equivalent of a straight line) through spacetime. So falling is a force-free activity, and gravity isn't a force. Other forces act on objects to accelerate them away from their geodesic, but gravity doesn't. Gravity warps spacetime to change what the geodesic is, but it doesn't push objects off their geodesic.
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Old 11th September 2023, 11:23 AM   #279
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Microwaves operate in the same frequency range as Bluetooth. Which I learned when I went to warm the cat food and the music cut out.
https://physics.stackexchange.com/qu...o%20not%20want.
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Old 11th September 2023, 11:41 AM   #280
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I recently learned (or re-learned yet again) that turtles don't live in their shell, they are their shell. Or rather the shell developed mainly from their ribs. Too many kids cartoons owning space in my brain.
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